Glossary of OCTG Terminology

Term Definition
AGA American Gas Association
AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
ANSI American National Standards Institute. Formerly the ASA American Standards Association
API American Petroleum Institute
ASME American Society for Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society of Testing Materials
A53A, A53B, A53F, A106 ASTM grades of carbon steel pipe
AWWA American Water Works Association
Bales Term associated with banded lifts of pipe.
Barlow’s Formula An equation which shows the relationship of internal pressure to allowable stress, nominal thickness and diameter.
Bevel The angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the pipe and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. The standard bevel for line pipe is 30o to facilitate welding.
Billet A solid semi finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging, rolling or extrusion. For seamless tubular products, the billet is heated and pierced to form a tube hollow.
Black Pipe Denotes lacquered OD finish (as opposed to bare or galvanized)
Box Internal (female) threaded end.
Brinell Hardness testing system which measures indentation of the subject using a  standard weight, shaped point.
BTC Buttress threaded and coupled.
Bundles Term associated with practice of packaging NPS 1 1/2″ and smaller pipe. Pieces per bundle vary depending upon size.
Burst Internal pressure at which tube will yield – often tested hydrostatically.
Burst Test A destructive hydraulic test employed to determine actual yield strength and ultimate strength of both seamless and welded pipe.
Butt-weld Pipe (See Continuous Weld)
Casing Pipe used as a structural retainer for the walls of a drilled hole.
CAD Computer aided design
CAM Computer aided manufacturing
CFT Hundred foot (sometimes used in pricing, i.e. $425.97/cft vs. $4.2597/ft.)
CNC Computer numerically controlled – refers to machinery.
Chamfer A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner.
Chemical Properties Normally associated with a limited number of chemical elements; however, depending upon the specification, practically a full analysis may be required. Minimum or maximum limits are established in Standards.
Cold Drawn Pipe or tubing which is pulled through a die to reduce diameter and wall.  This process usually produces closer tolerances and higher strength.
Coupling Threaded sleeve used to connect two lengths of pipe.
Cut Lengths Pipe cut to a specific length as ordered.
CW Continuous Weld a method of producing small diameter pipe (1/2 – 4″)
CWT Hundred Weight.  Often used in handling or trucking pricing, i.e. .30/cwt load out charge or $1.65/cwt (freight) with a minimum such as 30,000#.
Die Stamping Permanent marking placed on pipe as required by some specifications.
Double Extra Strong Standard pipe weight designation (XXS). Sometimes described as XXH (double extra heavy).
Drift Minimum ID clearance verified by pulling a mandrel of known size through a length of pipe.
DRL Double Random Length (35′ minimum average or as defined in specifications).
DSAW Double Submerged Arc Weld.
Ductility The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test or by other means.
Eddy Current Testing Non destructive testing method in which eddy current flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.
Elongation In tensile testing, the increase in the gage length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.
EMI Electromagnetic inspection a method of determining wall thickness and detecting imperfections in steel tubes.
ERW Electric Resistance Weld. See High Frequency Welding.
EUE External upset ends forging of ends on (API) tubing and drill pipe to provide additional thickness for strengthening connections.
EW Electric Weld. See High Frequency Weld.
Expanded Pipe Pipe which has been enlarged circumferentially by mechanical or hydraulic pressure.
Extra Strong Standard pipe weight designation (XS). Sometimes described as XH (extra heavy).
Flattening Test A quality test for pipe in which a specimen is flattened between parallel plates that are closed to a specified height.
FLD Full Length Drift (as opposed to “end drift”) usually performed as part of used tubing or casing (OCTG) inspection.
Flush Joint Connection with male and female threads cut directly into the pipe (as opposed to T&C).  This provides the same ID and OD clearance as in the middle of the tube, once lengths are joined.
FOB Free On Board used to denote where pipe is to be provided to the buyer.
High Frequency Welding A technique employed in the manufacture of electric resistance weld pipe. Typical radio frequency power for welding is supplied at 450,000 cycles/sec.
Hot Stamp Permanent marking placed on pipe as employed by manufacturer or as established by specification.
Hydrostatic Test Normal mill test as required by specifications. The pipe ends are sealed and high pressure water is introduced to predetermined pressures as required by specifications.
I.D. Inside Diameter
Impact Test A test performed at a specified temperature (usually lower than ambient) to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in a Charpy Test.
Ink Mark Continuous printing identification associated with NPS 1 1/2 and smaller pipe. Detail is normally limited to the trademark and “Made in USA”.
Joint One length of pipe
Kip A unit of weight equal to 1,000 pounds used to express dead weight.
Lifts Term associated with separated segments of pipe (banded or unbanded for ease of handling).
LS Limited Service pipe not meeting specification, usually rejected at the mill.
LT Loaded Trucks used in price quotation to indicate seller pays for handling.
LTC Long Thread and Coupling (OCTG casing connection)
Magnetic Particle One of several methods of non destructive testing. A non destructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Finely divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, are attracted to and outline the pattern of and magnetic leakage fields created by discontinuities.
Magnetic Properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application; for example, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit.
Mid Weld Two or more joints welded to form a longer one.
Nipple Short length of pipe (<12″) threaded on both ends
Nominal Pipe size or wall thickness as specified (not actual).  Sizes refer to approximate ID, even though OD is the fixed dimension.
Normalizing Heating a ferrous material to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range.
NPS A dimensionless designator for such traditional terms as “nominal diameter”, “size”, and “nominal size”. Corresponds to actual outside diameter only in sizes 14 inches and over.
NUE Non upset end OCTG tubing description (not as common as EUE)
O.D. Outside Diameter
OCTG Oil Country Tubular Goods pipe made to API specifications
Oiled (See Black Oiled)
PE Plain End
PEB Plain End Beveled
p.s.i. Pounds per square inch
Pickling Pipe immersed into acid bath for removal of scale, oil, dirt, etc.
Pin External (male) threaded end
Protector Plastic, steel or composite cap to protect threads from handling damage
R & D Reamed and Drifted. Pipe commonly used in water wells which has a special, heavy duty coupling and a guaranteed I.D. clearance.
Range (R1, R2, R3) lengths of OCTG (Range 1 casing 16-25′) (Range 2 casing 25-34′) (Range 3 casing 34-48′) (Range 1 tubing 20-24′) (Range 2 tubing 28-32′)
Rockwell Hardness Relative resistance of a metal to indentation by a diamond cone, as expressed in hardness scale units (A, B, C or G)
SAW Submerged arc weld a method of producing very large OD pipe
SC Square cut plain end pipe
Schedule Numbers assigned to different wall thicknesses of pipe (i.e. sch. 40)
SEA Special End Area inspection to check for defects at either end of a steel tube which is also being inspected electronically.  (EMI misses the ends.)
Shoe Sub sometimes run on bottom of casing string with special metallurgy or design to help pipe to bottom through tight or bridged spots in drill hole.
Skelp A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness, width and edge configuration, from which welded pipe is made.
SMLS Seamless
Spec Specification
SRL Single Random Length (16-22 ft. for standard weight ASTM pipe or as defined in specifications).
STC Short Thread and Coupling (OCTG casing connection).
STD Standard reference to wall thickness of line pipe (=sch. 40 for 1/8 – 10″).
Stencil Paint spray identification placed on pipe. Specification size, wall, grade, test pressure, method of manufacture and normal mill characters and mill identification are usually included; however, detail varies by specification. “Country of Origin” is included.
Stretch Reduction A technique employed in the manufacture of continuous weld pipe and in certain instances in the manufacture of seamless and electric resistance weld pipe. It involves one or several “master” sizes which are stretch reduced or rolled under tension through a number of stands to achieve a variety of standard pipe diameters and walls.
Strip A sheet of metal in which the length is many times the width.
Sub A short coupling with different types and/or sizes of ends.
T&C Threaded and Coupled.
T&D Tested and Drifted one method of verifying integrity of used tubing and casing (OCTG).  “Test” refers to hydrostatic:  ends are sealed and water pumped inside to a predetermined pressure.  (See drift def. above).
TBE Threaded Both Ends
Tensile Strength In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross sectional area. Also, called ultimate strength. Usually expressed in pounds per square inch.
TO Threads Only
Tolerance Specified allowance (plus or minus) of the given dimension of a finished product due to inaccuracies in manufacturing; usually quite small (thousandths of an inch or very small percentage) and often part of a standard such as ASTM or API.
Tool Joint Threaded tube, usually thicker and harder, welded onto pipe to provide joint strength and durability exceeding that of flush joint or T&C connections.
Tube Round (See Billet)
Ultrasonic An electronic method of non destructive testing utilizing sound waves.
Victaulic Joint grooves in the ends of pipe to accommodate a coupling.
XHY Extra Heavy pipe about 50% thicker than standard (=sch. 80 for 1/8 – 8″)
XXHY Double Extra Heavy twice as thick as xhy for 1/2 – 6″
Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals including steels.